如何從字尾來判斷名詞

字尾如果是 -ness, -ment, -tion, 或 -sion 通常是名詞。

以 ... 結尾的名詞
-ness-ment-tion-sion
business (商業)argument (爭論)abortion (墮胎)decision (決定)
illness (身體不適)basement (地下室)ambition (野心)illusion (錯覺)
kindness (仁慈)comment (評論)donation (捐獻)mansion (大廈)
sickness (患病)document (文件)emotion (情緒)occasion (場合)
weakness (弱點)element (要素)location (位置)tension (緊張)
witness (目擊者)payment (付款)tuition (學費)vision (視力)

Inflation is taxation without legislation.

通貨膨脹是沒有立法的稅收。

"Inflation is taxation without legislation." 引用自榮獲1976年諾貝爾經濟學獎的美國經濟學家和統計學家米爾頓·弗里德曼 (Milton Friedman)。
名詞 Inflation, taxation, legislation 字尾都是 -tion。

Forgiveness may be the kindest gift you can give yourself.

寬恕可能是您可以送給自己的最親切的禮物。

forgiveness - "原諒;寬恕", 是由動詞 forgive 後面加 -ness 形成的名詞。

以上只是一小部分以字尾來判斷名詞,其它字尾像 -ity, -ence, -ance, -hood 通常也是名詞。

-ityquality (品質)charity (施捨)
-enceaudience (聽眾)violence (暴力行為)
-anceentrance (入口)balance (平衡)
-hoodbrotherhood (兄弟情誼)neighborhood (鄰近地區)

I wish everybody had the _______ to take care of their families the way they want to.

(A) ability (B) capability (C) utility (D) obesity

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

  1. I left because I no longer had the   to feed my kids.
    我離開了,因為我不再有能力養活我的孩子。
  2. What technical   is necessary to build a missile-ready nuclear bomb?
    建造導彈核彈頭需要哪些技術能力?
  3. In the fight against childhood  , communities all over the country are banning the sale of sweets and salty snacks in public schools.
    為了打擊兒童的肥胖,全國各地的社區都禁止在公立學校銷售甜食和鹹點心。
ability capability obesity volatility

reality - n. 現實;reliability - n. 可靠,可信賴度。

許多動詞經由字尾加上-ment 而形成名詞,高中英文新版《108參考詞彙表》括列出這些字如下表:

「動詞」 + -ment → 「名詞」
動詞名詞級別釋義
accomplish accomplishment 實現;造詣
achieve achievement 成就
acknowledge acknowledgement 確認;回音;公證狀
adjust adjustment 調整
advertise advertisement 廣告
agree agreement 同意
amaze amazement 驚奇,詫異
amuse amusement 愉悅
announce announcement 宣佈
appoint appointment 約會;任命
arrange arrangement 安排
assess assessment 估價
assign assignment 任務;(課外)作業
astonish astonishment 驚訝;驚愕
attach attachment 連接;附著;附件
attain attainment 獲得;造詣
content contentment 知足;滿意
develop development 生長;發展
disagree disagreement 意見不一;不一致
disappoint disappointment 失望;掃興,沮喪
discourage discouragement 沮喪,氣餒,洩氣;勸阻
embarrass embarrassment 窘;難堪
employ employment 雇用;受雇
encourage encouragement 鼓勵;獎勵;促進
endorse endorsement 背書,贊同,認可
enforce enforcement 執行;強制
engage engagement 訂婚;雇用;交戰
enhance enhancement 提高,增加
enjoy enjoyment 樂趣,享受
enlarge enlargement 放大
enlighten enlightenment 啟蒙;教化;開明
enrich enrichment 添加肥料;增強食品營養
enroll enrollment 入會;登記人數
entertain entertainment 招待,款待; 演藝界
equip equipment 配備,裝備
establish establishment 建立;創立;建立的機構
excite excitement 刺激;興奮,激動
fulfill fulfillment 履行;實現;成就(感)
harass harassment 騷擾
imprison imprisonment 監禁;限止
improve improvement 改進,改善
invest investment 投資;投資額
involve involvement 介入
manage management 管理;經營;處理
measure measurement 測量法;測定;尺寸
move movement 動作
nourish nourishment 食物,營養品;養育,滋養
pave pavement 鋪築過的地面;人行道
pay payment 支付,付款
postpone postponement 延期;延緩
punish punishment 處罰;懲罰
refine refinement 優雅,高雅;提煉,精煉
refresh refreshment 茶點;精力恢復
replace replacement 取代;接替
require requirement 需要;必需品
resent resentment 憤慨;怨恨
retire retirement 退休
settle settlement 解決;清算;定居
state statement 陳述,說明;結單
treat treatment 對待;待遇;治療法

注意:有些動詞如 argue (爭論),加 -ment 形成名詞 argument (爭執)時, 動詞後面的 e 得先去掉。

Being sent to bed early is considered a _______ for a child.

(A) engagement (B) treatment (C) harassment (D) refinement (E) punishment (F) entertainment

Bullying breeds _______.

(A) refinement (B) resentment (C) embarrassment (D) endorsement

For Jerry, practicing yoga three times a week is a relaxing _______ from his tight work schedule.

(A) medication (B) fulfillment (C) diversion (D) nuisance

表某些特定職業的名詞

表示特定職業的名詞
字尾名詞
-erbuilder, teacher, driver, waiter, carpenter, lawyer
-oractor, editor, doctor, constructor, professor
-istartist, tourist, chemist, journalist, dentist, biologist
-antaccountant, assistant, merchant
-entpresident, student, superintendent
-mansalesman, policeman, postman
-womanchairwoman, anchorwoman
-personsalesperson, congressperson
-essactress, waitress, sculptress

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

有志於念醫學院的同學,不妨稍為注意下面這些字。字尾若是 -ologist 有很多是表示在某種疾病方面具有專長的醫生。

  1. cardiologist |  
  2. dermatologist |  
  3. gynecologist |  
  4. otologist |  
  5. rhinologist |  
  6. ophthalmologist |  
  7. neurologist |  
  8. pathologist |  
  9. oncologist | 
  10. endocrinologist |  
內分泌科專家 心臟科醫生 皮膚科醫生 耳科醫生 病理學家 神經學家 婦科醫生 眼科醫生 腫瘤學家 鼻科醫生

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

字尾是 -ism 帶有信仰、主義的意思。

  1. activism |  
  2. feminism |  
  3. optimism |  
  4. racism |  
  5. realism|  
  6. capitalism |  
  7. socialism |  
  8. communism |  
  9. pessimism |  
  10. heroism |  
  11. totalitarianism |  
女權主義 共產主義 社會主義 勇氣 - 英雄主義 現實主義 悲觀主義 極權主義 資本主義 種族歧視 - 種族主義 樂觀主義 激進主義

_______ is not a dirty word. It does not mean you hate men, it does not mean you hate girls that have nice legs and a tan , and it does not mean you are a bitch or dyke; it means you believe in equality .
   — Kate Nash, singer

(A) Altruism (B) Capitalism (C) Feminism (D) Fascism (E) Pessimism (F) Heroism

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

共產主義是指政府擁有一切,而且至少在理論上沒有私有財產。 一切都由政府規劃,控制和配給,但效率低下仍在繼續。

  is when the government owns  , and there is no   property, at least in theory. Everything is planned, controlled and   by the government, but inefficiencies continue.

Socialism anything Capitalism Communism everything private public rationed rationing

請將正確答案拖放到適當的空格內,再按Solve鈕看結果。

資本主義是指經濟被允許作為個人而非政府運作,決定將生產什麼以及將收取多少價格。 自由市場決定工資和福利。

  is when the economy is allowed to function as  , not  , decide what will be produced and what price will be charged. The free market determines wages and benefits.

Capitalism Communism governments individuals Socialism

Grammar



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