量詞 (quantifiers)

量詞,顧名思義是表數量(但沒有指出明確數目)的詞。它是一種限定詞,通常置於名詞前面。

如何選用正確的量詞,端看其後面的名詞是可數名詞不可數名詞而定。例如 many, few, a few, several 只能用於複數可數名詞, much, little, a little 只能用於不可數名詞,而 some, any, enough, lots of 等則可以同時用於複數可數名詞與不可數名詞。

我們以複數可數名詞 books (書) 和不可數名詞 money (金錢) 來舉例:

分別用於可數名詞與不可數名詞的量詞

量詞
複數可數名詞不可數名詞
a few books a little money
few bookslittle money
several booksa bit of money
many booksmuch money

註:量詞 several - "一些;幾個" 表示少於 'many' 的不確定的數量。

I’d like to share a few books that influenced my thinking.

我願意把影響我思唯的幾本書與大家分享。

When I get a little money, I buy books; and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.

當我有了一點錢,我買書籍; 如果還有任何剩餘,我買食物和衣服。

量詞 few 和 little 都有“少”的意思。few 後面接複數可數名詞;little 後面接不可數名詞。

Few thunderstorms occur in the desert.

在沙漠中很少有大雷雨發生。

thunderstorms 是複數可數名詞。

Little rain falls in the desert.

在沙漠中很少降雨。

rain 是不可數名詞。

  • 在我的班上女同學很少。
  • There are little female students in my class.
  • There are few female students in my class.

量詞 little 不能用在可數名詞"female students"上。

I need _______ things, but not many.

(A) a little (B) several

可以同時用於複數可數名詞與不可數名詞的量詞

量詞
複數可數名詞不可數名詞
some bookssome money
any booksany money
enough booksenough money
all of the booksall of the money
none of the booksnone of the money
lots of books lots of money
a lot of booksa lot of money
plenty of books plenty of money
most of booksmost of money

Do you have any books by J. K. Rowling?

你有J.K.羅琳的任何書籍嗎?

量詞 any 用於複數可數名詞。

I don't have any money to loan you.

我沒有錢借給你。

量詞 any 用於不可數名詞。

對於不可數名詞,我們最常用的量詞是:

以"some"來表示少量

(少量)somewater
bread
wine
meat
coffee

以"lots of"或“a lot of"來表示大量

(大量)a lot of
lots of
water
bread
wine
meat
coffee

對於可數名詞,"some"基本上是不定冠詞(a/an)的複數形式。

單數複數
a girlsome girls
an applesome apples

I don't think it's fair for some girls to have plenty of pretty things, and other girls nothing at all.

一些女孩有很多漂亮的東西,而其他女孩一點都沒有,我認為是不公平的。

some 與 plenty of 都是量詞。
本句節錄自經典小說 “Little Women”。

量詞 + of

(量詞)some
any
many
none
a lot
several
of

我們用「量詞 + of」表示有限數量的一部分。

Pakistan produces some of the world's finest fabrics.

巴基斯坦生產一些世界上最好的的布料。

Many of my friends have their own cars.

我的很多朋友都擁有自己的車子。

Several of the students left early.

幾個學生早就離開了。

其它常見的量詞

其它常見的量詞
Some (有些), any (任一)
many (很多[數]),much (很多[量])
lots of, a lot of (大量的);
enough (足夠的), plenty of (充足的);
a few (有一些[數]), a little (稍許的[量]);
more (更多的),most (最多的) ;
fewer (較少的[數]), fewest (最少的[數]);
less (較少的[量]), least (最少的[量]);
every (每一個),each (各自的);any (任一)
other, others (另一個的; 其餘的), another(另外的)

同學們不妨順便參考由量詞 "some", "any", "every", "no" 與 -body, -one, -thing, -where 所結合而成的複合字。

Grammar



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